Как се е инсталирал Линукс на времето

Намерих описание на инстарирането на първата използваема версия на линукс. Просто нещата са на светлинни години от тогава…

Warning: I have personally not done this the hard way, so I don't know
what problems could surface.  In general, this version is still meant
for people with minix: they are more used to the system, and can do some
things that DOS-based persons cannot.  If you have only DOS, expect some
troubles.  As the version number suggests, this is still not the final
product.

This is a "fast hack", meant as a minimal guide to what you must do.
I'll expand this as soon as people tell me what they have problems with
etc etc.  If somebody who has successfully installed the system wants to
write something better, I'd be delighted.  This guide stinks to high
heaven.

		Installing Linux-0.10 on your system

There are 5 major steps in installing linux on your system:

1 - BACK UP ANY IMPORTANT DATA.  Linux accesses your hardware directly,
and if your hardware differs from mine, you could be in for a nasty
surprise. Doublecheck that your hardware is compatible: AT style
harddisk, VGA controller. (If somebody has EGA, please tell me if the
screen driver should happen to work)

2 - Make a file-system on your harddisk.  This is easy if you have
minix, but if you haven't got minix, you'll have to get the minix
demo-disk from somewhere (plains.nodak.edu is one place), and use that.
There should be a manual accompanying the demo-disk, and you had better
read that carefully.  Although this version of linux will boot up
without minix, a knowledge of minix would help.  Especially if you have
never done any unix work, you'll be very confused.

Making a filesystem means getting a empty partition (with DOS fdisk or
similar), and using the 'mkfs /dev/hdX nnn' command to write out a empty
file-system.

3 - copy the diskimages to two floppies. Again, under minix (or any
unix), this is easy, as you can just do a simple 'dd' to a floppy, but
from within MS-DOS this might be a bit trickier. 'debug' should be able
to write diskettes directly, or you could get the sources to "raw-write"
from the same place as you got the minix demo disk, and modify them to
write out any disk image (or do they do that already?).

NOTE! The floppies MUST be of the same type: even though the boot-image
will fit nicely on a 360kB floppy, you have to write it to the same type
of floppy as the root-image. That means a 1.2M or 1.44M floppy. The
reason is that the floppy-type is determined at boot-time from the
boot-floppy. Thus the same binary works on both 3.5" and 5.25" drives.

4 - boot up from floppy. This should be obvious. Having a floppy as
root-device isn't very fast (especially on a machine with less than 6MB
total ram -> small buffer cache), but it works (I hope). Test the
programs on the root-floppy (cat mkdir etc).

5 - Mount the harddisk partition (I do it on /user: ie
'mount /dev/hdX /user'), and copy the file system over to the new
partition. The following is a example of how to do this:

$ cd /user
$ mkdir usr
$ for i in bin etc usr/bin usr/root mtools
> do
> mkdir $i
> cp `ls -A /$i` $i
> done
$ mkdir dev
$ cd dev
$ for i in 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
> do
> mknod 'hd'$i b 3 $i
> done
$ mknod tty c 5 0
$ mknod tty0 c 4 0
$ mknod tty1 c 4 1
$ mknod tty2 c 4 2

You should now have a filesystem you could boot from. Play around a bit,
try to get aquainted with the new system. Log out when you've had
enough.

6 - Changing the boot-diskette use your new harddisk partition as root.
The root device to be used for linux is encoded in a word at offset 508
in the boot image.  Normally this is 0, meaning that the root is to be
the same type of floppy as was used in the boot process.  This can be
changed to whatever you like.

Use a short program like the one at the end to change the word (I assume
everybody has access to some kind of C compiler, be it under dos or
unix).  You can then write out the new bootdisk, and boot from it, now
using the harddisk as root (much faster).  Once you have successfully
done that you might want to install additional programs (gcc etc) by
reading them from a dos-floppy with 'mcopy'.

		Linus [email blocked]

------	example program: use 'a.out < oldboot > newboot' ----
#include
char tmp[512];

void main(void)
{
	int i;

	if (512 != read(0,tmp,512))
		exit(1);
	if (0xAA55 != *((unsigned short *)(tmp+510)))
		exit(2);
	*((unsigned short *)(tmp+508)) = NEW_DEV;
	if (512 != write(1,tmp,512))
		exit(3);
	while ((i=read(0,tmp,512)) > 0)
		if (i != write(1,tmp,i))
			exit(4);
	exit(0);
}
-------

		Devices:

Harddisks:
0x301 - /dev/hd1 - first partition on first drive
...
0x304 - /dev/hd2 - fourth partition on first drive

0x306 - /dev/hd1 - first partition on second drive
...
0x309 - /dev/hd2 - fourth partition on second drive

0x300 - /dev/hd0 - the whole first drive. BE CAREFUL
0x305 - /dev/hd5 - the whole second drive. BE CAREFUL

Floppies:
0x208 - 1.2M in A
0x209 - 1.2M in B
0x21C - 1.44M in A
0x21D - 1.44M in B

Ако някой иска да смъква тази антика да натисне тук.

Публикувано на Uncategorized. Запазване в отметки на връзката.

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